World Uyghur Congress Universal Periodic Review of China Report Submission

World Uyghur Congress, 24 April 2018

The World Uyghur Congress submitted a parallel report to be considered ahead of China’s 3rd Cycle Universal Periodic Review in November 2018. The report outlines the most pressing concerns for the Uyghur population in China over the last five years and provides concrete recommendations for China and for the international community.

SUMMARY:

  1. Official policy in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and towards the Uyghur population, within the current UPR reporting period, has had the effect of substantially eroding Uyghur cultural identity and criminalises basic expression, assembly and movement through various legislative measures.
  2. In this report, we attempt to link the PRC’s officially accepted recommendations from its 2nd Cycle UPR Review in 2013 with current policy, with the intention of highlighting significant gaps in compliance and implementation.

FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY & ASSOCIATION:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Refrain from impeding civil society and respect its international obligations on the right to freedom of peaceful assembly.” (Germany)

  1. Authorities in the XUAR exercise broad powers to suppress peaceful assembly, often labelling actions as terrorist activity. Police and security forces have indiscriminately fired into crowds of Uyghurs in recent years leaving many killed in Awat,[i] Kucha[ii] and Luntai County.[iii]
  2. Strong limitations on freedom of assembly exist, particularly in light of state security laws. Criminal Law of the PRC provides authorities broad powers to arrest and sentence protest organizers. Article 291 provides for criminal sanctions that include up to five years in prison for the main organizer of crowds that “disturb order in a public place.”[iv]
  3. A Uyghur student, Abdulbasit Ablimit, was shot dead and two others wounded after he drove through a security checkpoint on his motorcycle in Aksu prefecture.[v] Around 400 Uyghurs marched to the county office to protest and 70 of them were arrested and 17 were sentenced to between six months and seven years.
  4. On July 28, 2014, Uyghurs protested in Elishku Township in reaction to the killing of eleven people in a dispute during a house to house search by police in Bashkent Township.[vi] According to Chinese media, 96 civilians were killed and hundreds injured when security forces clashed with protestors, though reports from the ground suggest the number is much higher.[vii]

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Reform legislation and law enforcement in order to ensure freedom of opinion and expression, including on the internet.” (Germany)

  1. Freedom of expression for Uyghurs is effectively non-existent. Many Uyghur websites have been shut down and their administrators imprisoned on charges of “harming ethnic unity” or “endangering state security.”[viii]
  2. Ilham Tohti, Uyghur economist, writer and professor, founded the website “net” to promote conciliation between Uyghurs and Chinese. Tohti was arrested in January 2014 and WGAD found his deprivation of liberty to be arbitrary in April.[ix] He was tried from September 23-24, 2014, and convicted of “inciting separatism” and sentenced to life in prison. Tohti’s lawyers could not meet him for six months after detention, the defense team was not provided with complete evidence by the prosecutor, nor were their requested witnesses allowed to testify.[x] Seven of Tohti’s students were sentenced from three to eight years in 2014 on separatism charges. Tohti’s access to family members has been severely limited.[xi]
  3. Uyghur journalist, Gheyret Niyaz was sentenced to 15 years in 2010 for “threatening national security” after criticising government policy towards Uyghurs.[xii] Nureli Obul, Dilshat Perhat and webmaster Nijat Azat were given three, five and ten year prison sentences respectively for “endangering state security” for online posts in 2010 as well as webmasters Obulkasim and Muhemmet.[xiii]
  4. Internet access in the region is routinely shut down following violent incidents, as it was for six months following violence in Yarkand County.[xiv] Reporters Without Borders found in October 2009 that more than 85 per cent of the surveyed sites focusing on Uyghur content were “blocked, censored or otherwise unreachable.”[xv]
  5. Additional cases include: Gulmira Imin, Ahmet Tursun, Muhter, Memetjan Abdulla, Tursun Mehmet, and Gulnisa Memet who were sentenced following violence in July 2009 in Urumqi on charges of “endangering state security”;[xvi] Tursunjan Memet, Omerjan Hesen, Ababekri Muhtar, Akbarjan Eset and one additional writer were detained between March and May 2016 to prevent them from criticizing Chinese policy during Ramadan.[xvii] Tursunjan Muhemmet Marshal, Tursunjan Hezim, Memet Turghun Abdulla, Memetjan (Muhemmetjan) Abdulla, Ekbar Eset have also been sentenced for expression.[xviii]

RELIGIOUS FREEDOM:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Strengthen protection of ethnic minorities’ religious, socio-economic and political rights, ensuring reports of violations are promptly and transparently investigated.” (Australia)

  1. In June 2017, China passed a revised version of its Regulations on Religious Affairs (RRA) which codifies even greater state control over religious practice. The amendments give greater control to the government to monitor religious practice, control religious activities, and contains restrictions designed to “curb extremism” and “resist infiltration”. A much greater focus on the role of religious practice, national security and online expression is included.[xix]
  2. The regional government in the XUAR also passed a Regulation on ‘De-extremification’ – legislation that targets Islam in particular. Under the Regulation, signs of “extremification” include: Wearing clothing with face coverings; growing “irregular beards”; bearing symbols of “extremification”; and publishing or possessing information with “extremist content”. Parents have been prohibited from choosing 28 baby names for their children.[xx]
  3. Uyghurs under the age of 18 are not able to enter mosques to pray or take part in religious activity,[xxi] religious activity has been confined only to “officially approved religious premises”, imams are selected by the government and heavily scrutinized, many mosques have been demolished,[xxii] Ramadan practices are restricted,[xxiii] religious sites are monitored[xxiv] as well as religious ceremonies,[xxv] and Uyghurs are often detained for quotidian religious practice.[xxvi]
  4. China has convicted and imprisoned Abdukiram Abduveli,[xxvii] Qamber Amber,[xxviii] Eli Yasin,[xxix] Eziz Emet,[xxx] and Horigul Nasir,[xxxi] Abdusemet Qarihaji,[xxxii] and Memet Réhim and Memet Sidiq,[xxxiii] for their religious beliefs and practices.

COUNTER-TERRORISM:

  1. China has enacted national and regional legislation supporting practices including extra-judicial killings, torture and imprisonment, and crackdowns on even mild expressions of religious identity and culture. China’s counter terrorism strategy has led to substantial militarization of the region with terrorism convictions increasing rapidly.
  2. The Counter–Terrorism Law of the PRC was passed on December 27, 2015,[xxxiv] and includes an excessively broad definition of “terrorism” and “terrorist activities” in Article 3.[xxxv]
  3. Regional implementation guidelines for the XUAR were passed by the regional government on July 29, 2016. The guidelines refine the scope of the national legislation and make direct connections between what is broadly defined as “extremism” and terrorism. The legislation makes a direct link between religious practice, extremism and terrorism in Article 7.[xxxvi]

SECURITY & SURVEILLANCE:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Adjust and specify the applicable conditions and stipulations for the adoption of compulsory measures such as arrest, release on bail pending trial and residential surveillance.” (Timor-Leste)

  1. China’s security and surveillance apparatus has substantially increased in scope and influence particularly since the appointment of Chen Quanguo to Party Secretary of the region, former Party Secretary for Tibet.
  2. Chen has pioneered a ‘grid-style social management’[xxxvii] approach to security, in which urban areas are divided into a grid with increased police presence and surveillance. Each zone is equipped with a dense network of security cameras, check-points, and ‘convenience police stations’.[xxxviii] In Kashgar these stations are present at almost every intersection.[xxxix] From August 2016 to July 2017, 90,866 jobs for police and security positions were advertised in the XUAR, nearly twelve times the number advertised in 2009.[xl]
  3. Mass-collection of personal data from CCTV scanners, facial recognition software, public databases, police checkpoints and from DNA and blood samples is analysed using artificial intelligence in large data hubs.[xli] Artificial intelligence analyses the data and predicts who is likely to be involved in criminal activity. Since August 2016, the Xinjiang Bureau of Public Security acknowledged the creation of the ‘Integrated Joint Operations Platform (IJOP), which receives data from surveillance networks and issues predictive warnings to police in real time.[xlii]
  4. DNA samples, fingerprints, iris scans, and blood types of all residents in the region between the ages of 12 and 65 were collected from 18.8 million people in 2017 and adds to a database of 40 million nation-wide.[xliii] Samples collected have no connection with criminality, with only 1.5 million samples being related to physical evidence related to a crime.[xliv]
  5. In 2014, 200,000 CCP cadres were dispatched to the countryside to monitor Uyghur households.[xlv] This has been replicated on two occasions in 2017, during Ramadan[xlvi] and again in December 2017 as part of a so-called ‘ethnic unity campaign’.[xlvii] The tourism industry is also being used to monitor and control any visitors to the region.[xlviii]
  6. China incentivizes Uyghurs and others to report on their neighbors.[xlix] Liu Huijun, Party Secretary of the Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture published an open letter to the Kyrgyz herdsmen urging them to spy on Uyghurs on its news portal on March 31, 2017, offering financial incentives.[l]

FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) “Permanently lift restrictions on access to minority areas.” (Australia)

  1. Uyghurs are ethnically profiled at checkpoints and are routinely stopped to have cell phones inspected.[li] Chinese officials search the devices for unauthorized religious material or communication with anyone living abroad. In June 2017, all vehicles in the Bayingol Mongol Autonomous Prefecture were required to install GPS devices that allow officials to track movements.[lii]
  2. The Chinese government has heavily restricted Uyghurs’ rights to travel. On October 19, 2016 it was announced by the Shihezi Public Security Bureau that all Uyghurs living in the XUAR must hand in their passports to police or risk punishment.[liii] In 2017, these measures were applied to all Uyghurs living in China, and Uyghurs living abroad faced difficulties when trying to renew passports at Chinese embassies.[liv] In April and May 2017, the Chinese government ordered all Uyghur students studying abroad to return. Many who voluntarily returned were arrested and detained on their arrival, with at least five dying in custody.[lv]
  3. The Chinese government has also made use of the INTERPOL Red Notice system to limit the movements of dissidents and activists.[lvi] WUC President Dolkun Isa was issued a Red Notice in the late 1990s that severely restricted his travel, though it was deleted in February 2018.

‘RE-EDUCATION’ CAMPS:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Ensure that any reformed prison or compulsory care system meets international human rights standards, and abolish system of arbitrary detention, including Re-Education Through Labour.” (Sweden)

  1. China began using ‘re-education’ camps, reminiscent of Re-Education Through Labour, in the XUAR in 2017 which hold hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs in early 2018. In Kashgar prefecture, it is reported that 120,000 Uyghurs are being held.[lvii] Estimates for the entire region put the number at around 900,000.[lviii]
  2. The camps function as prisons, where detainees are forced to undergo political indoctrination classes that aim to erode aspects of the Uyghur identity. Uyghurs are not officially charged with a crime or provided explanations for detention, though Uyghurs with religious affiliations, students who have studied abroad or have ties to anyone living abroad have been targeted. Most recently, the relatives of Gulchehra Hoja, a journalist working for Radio Free Asia, disappeared and were presumably sent to the camps.[lix]
  3. Conditions in the camps are very poor, with overcrowding and squalid living spaces.[lx] In December 2017, two young Uyghurs died in custody under uncertain circumstances.[lxi] A prominent Uyghur scholar and religious figure Muhammad Salih Hajim died in a camp in January 2018,[lxii] another was driven to suicide in February 2018,[lxiii] and a teenager died under mysterious circumstances in March 2018.[lxiv]

ARBITRARY DETENTION:

Noted Recommendation (2013) – “Abolish all forms of arbitrary and extra-judicial detention.” (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

  1. Uyghur human rights activists, academics and religious leaders remain imprisoned after being charged with ‘separatism’, ‘state subversion’ and ‘illegal religious activities’. These charges are intentionally ambiguous, allowing Chinese police to arrest Uyghurs for free expression.
  2. Basic legal rights, including the right to legal representation, a fair and prompt trial and due process are non-existent for Uyghurs. Prominent cases of arbitrary detention include Gulmira Imin,[lxv] Huseyin Celil[lxvi] and Bizainafu Abudourexit.[lxvii]

ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCES:

Noted Recommendation (2013) – “End the use of harassment, detention, arrest, and extralegal measures such as enforced disappearance to control and silence human rights activists as well as their family members and friends.” (United States of America)

  1. States hosting Uyghur refugees and asylum seekers have been pressured to return them, often to be disappeared afterwards. Since 1997, at least 300 Uyghur asylum seekers have been forcibly returned from 16 countries including 109 from Thailand in 2014,[lxviii] and 22 students from Egypt in 2017.[lxix] No information has been released about their whereabouts.
  2. In 2018, several ongoing cases illustrate China’s pressure. In Bulgaria, five Uyghur asylum seekers are at significant risk of being deported to China.[lxx] In another case, 11 Uyghurs who were arrested in Malaysia, after escaping from an immigration detention centre in Thailand where they had been arbitrarily detained since 2014, are at immediate risk of extradition.[lxxi]

TORTURE:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Effectively implement and establish the necessary institutional mechanisms to ensure the enforcement of existing laws prohibiting torture and dismissing illegally obtained evidence.” (Denmark)

  1. China has not amended its Criminal Procedure and Criminal Law (CPL) to conform to the Convention Against Torture to recognize a broader range of abuses that constitute torture under the Convention.[lxxii]
  2. Police are legally entitled to deny access to lawyers for suspects charged with terrorism and state security offenses, expanding opportunities for the use of torture without legal supervision.[lxxiii] China also continues to allow use of evidence collected (including forced confessions) to be used at trial. [lxxiv]
  3. Recent reports of torture include Ilham Tohti,[lxxv] Shohret Tursun,[lxxvi] Abdukiram Abduweli,[lxxvii] Noor-Ul-Islam Sherbaz,[lxxviii] Mirzahid Amanullah Shahyari.[lxxix]

ECONOMIC & LABOUR RIGHTS:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Include a prohibition of discrimination of any kind, including discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, ethnicity, religion and infection with HIV, in labour and employment law in line with international standards.” (Netherlands)

  1. Uyghurs suffer from significantly higher unemployment rates than Chinese.[lxxx] Rapidly developing industries including the energy service sector, construction resource extraction and government positions are dominated by Chinese, and Uyghurs are largely excluded from benefits and employment opportunities.
  2. Employment opportunities require applicants to speak Mandarin Chinese and indirectly exclude Uyghurs from many positions. Uyghurs are disproportionately excluded from development because they reside in greater concentration in the south and in rural areas, whereas Chinese are more heavily concentrated in northern, rural areas, which sees the benefits of regional development.[lxxxi]

CULTURAL RIGHTS:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Continue its efforts to further ensure ethnic minorities the full range of human rights including cultural rights.” (Japan)

  1. A directive was issued by the Education Department of Hotan prefecture in late June 2017 outlawing the use of the Uyghur language for students at all education levels from primary to secondary school.[lxxxii] China has built of a system of ‘bilingual education’ that has substantially eroded the use of the Uyghur language in schools and in public life.[lxxxiii]
  2. Nearly 85 percent of the old town of Kashgar, a 2000 year-old city, was largely demolished by the Chinese government between 2009 and 2017, displacing hundreds of thousands of residents and into the city’s outskirts.[lxxxiv] The local and regional government failed to engage in meaningful consultation with Uyghurs on how they wished to transform their own communities. [lxxxv] The demolitions resulted in the loss of physical structures including homes, shops and religious sites, as well as patterns of traditional Uyghur life.[lxxxvi]
  3. Adurahim Heyit, a prominent Uyghur musician, was arrested in March 2017,[lxxxvii] as well as the poet Abdurehim Abdulla, who wrote his lyrics, was also arrested around the same time.[lxxxviii]

ENVIRONMENT:

Accepted Recommendation (2013) – “Continue efforts in environmental protection and in improving living conditions.” (Belarus)

  1. Extractive industries and industrial-scale farming have led to significant environmental degradation. Many Uyghurs work in smaller-scale agriculture, and degradation of the land, pollution and desertification have significant impacts on health and livelihoods.
  2. Radiation from nuclear tests conducted at Lop Nor from 1964-1996 has affected at least 1.2-1.43 million people.[lxxxix] Researchers note a significant increase in the cancer rate and related afflictions in the Uyghur population. The likelihood of contracting cancer is 30% higher in the region compared to the rest of China.[xc] Estimates of number of deaths caused by the nuclear tests range from 194,000[xci] to 750,000.[xcii]

RECOMMENDATIONS:

  • Grant genuine autonomy to Uyghurs in governance of the XUAR.
  • Immediately reverse Uyghur language ban in Hotan prefecture and amend ‘bilingual education’ program to ensure Uyghur language stands on equal footing with Mandarin.
  • Immediately dismantle ‘re-education’ camps across the XUAR and begin transparent investigation.
  • End restrictions on free movement for Uyghurs.
  • Amend counter-terror legislation so that it respects international human rights standards.
  • Amend legislation making direct links between religious practice and extremism.
  • Stop persecution and criminalization of Uyghurs for exercising freedom of religion and belief.
  • Reveal whereabouts of numerous Uyghur victims of enforced disappearance.
  • Immediately release Ilham Tohti and other political prisoners.
  • Eliminate discrimination against Uyghurs in hiring practices across the XUAR.
  • Cooperate with UN Special Procedures and respond to outstanding requests for official visits.

[i] Pokalova, E. (2012). Authoritarian regimes against terrorism: lessons from China. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 6(2), 285.

[ii] Sulaiman, Eset (2014, May 20). Xinjiang Police Open Fire at Protest Against Clampdown on Islamic Dress, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/dress-05202014202002.html

[iii] Hoshur, Shohret (2014, October 3). Innocent Bystander Shot by Police in Xinjiang’s Bugur Violence, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/civilian-10032014170450.html

[iv] CECC (2016, October 6). Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report 2016, pp. 101, available at: http://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/2016%20Annual%20Report.pdf

[v] Wee, S. (2014, April 17). Chinese police shoot man dead at checkpoint in Xinjiang, Reuters. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang/chinese-police-shoot-man-dead-at-checkpoint-in-xinjiang-idUSBREA3G0BC20140417

[vi] Hoshur, S. (2014, August 5). ‘At Least 2,000 Uyghurs Killed’ in Yarkand Violence: Exile Leader, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/yarkand-08052014150547.html

[vii] Al Jazeera America (2014, August 3). China: 96 dead in Xinjiang attacks last week, Al Jazeera America. Retrieved from: http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/8/3/china-96-dead-inxinjiangattackslastweek.html

[viii] Long, Q. (2016, January 27). China Shutters Uyghur Websites For ‘Harming Ethnic Unity’, Radio Free Asia Mandarin Service. Retrieved from: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-uyghur-01272016122318.html

[ix] UN Human Rights Council, Opinions adopted by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention at its sixty-ninth session (22 April–1 May 2014): No. 3/2014, China, 21 July 2014 , A/HRC/WGAD/2014/3, available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/091/36/PDF/G1409136.pdf?OpenElement

[x] Congressional Executive Commission on China (2014, November 17). Lawyers Cite Procedural Violations, Await Decision on Appeal in Ilham Tohti Case. Retrieved from: http://www.cecc.gov/publications/commission-analysis/lawyers-cite-procedural-violations-await-decision-on-appeal-in

[xi] Cao, Y. (2016, February 24). Brother Denied Right to Visit Ilham Tohti, Moderate Uighur Scholar Sentenced to Life in Prison, China Change. Retrieved from: https://chinachange.org/2016/02/24/brother-denied-visitation-of-ilham-tohti-moderate-uighur-scholar-sentenced-to-life-in-prison/

[xii] Reporters Without Borders (2010, August 2). Jail terms for three Uyghur webmasters accused of jeopardising state security, Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved from: https://rsf.org/en/news/jail-terms-three-uyghur-webmasters-accused-jeopardising-state-security

[xiii] Committee to Protect Journalists. Detained Journalists, Nijat Azay. Retrieved from: https://cpj.org/data/people/nijat-azat/

[xiv] International Federation of Journalists (2014, August 21). Xinjiang authorities shut down internet after deadly riot. Retrieved from: http://www.ifj.org/nc/news-single-view/backpid/33/article/xinjiang-authorities-shut-down-internet-after-deadly-riot/

[xv] Reporters Without Borders (2009, October 29). Survey of blocked Uyghur websites shows Xinjiang still cut off from the world, Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved from: https://rsf.org/en/news/survey-blocked-uyghur-websites-shows-xinjiang-still-cut-world

[xvi] World Uyghur Congress (2011, August 4). Political Prisoner Database: Gulmira Imin, available at: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?p=9898

[xvii] Sulaiman, E. (2009, June 13). Authorities Detain Uyghur Web Masters And Writers in China’s Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/authorities-detain-uyghuer-web-masters-and-writers-in-chinas-xinjiang-06132016153910.html

[xviii] World Uyghur Congress, Uyghur Political Prisoners. Retrieved from: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?p=33221

[xix] Sheperd, C. (2017, September 7). China tightens regulation of religion to ‘block extremism’, Reuters. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-religion/china-tightens-regulation-of-religion-to-block-extremism-idUSKCN1BI1IH

[xx] Hernandez, J. (2017, April 25). China Bans ‘Muhammad’ and ‘Jihad’ as Baby Names in Heavily Muslim Region, The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/25/world/asia/china-xinjiang-ban-muslim-names-muhammad-jihad.html

[xxi] Long, Q. (2014, October 30). China Clamps Down on ‘Underage Religion’ Among Muslim Uyghurs, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/underage-10302014120731.html

[xxii] CECC (2017, October 5). Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report 2017, pp. 8, available at: https://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/2017%20Annual%20Report.pdf

[xxiii] Freedom House (2016). Freedom in the World Report 2016. Retrieved from: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/china

[xxiv] Irade (2016, October 24). Chinese Government Sends Religious Monitors to Xinjiang’s Hotan, Radio Free Asia. Retrieved from: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/the-chinese-government-sends-10242016142604.html

[xxv] Press Trust of India (2016, November 23). Report all religious activities; China to Xinjiang residents, Press Trust of India. Retrieved from: http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/report-all-religious-activities-china-to-xinjiang-residents-116112300751_1.html

[xxvi] Hoshur, S. (2016, March 16). Uyghur Imam, Farmers Sentenced For Illegally Practicing Religion in China’s Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia. Retrieved from: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/uyghur-imam-farmers-sentenced-for-illegally-practicing-religion-in-chinas-xinjiang-03162016112010.html

[xxvii] Long, Q. (2014, April 25). Uyghur Religious Leader on Hunger Strike After Fifth Jail Term, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/hunger-04252014152239.html

[xxviii] Hoshur, Shohret (2015, April 8). Uyghur Religious Scholar Jailed Nine Years For ‘Refusing to Cooperate’ With Authorities, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/scholar-04082015120808.html

[xxix] Hoshur, Shohret (2016, May 9). Uyghur Given 7-Year Prison Term For Viewing Muslim Film, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/film-05092016151441.html

[xxx] Hoshur, Shohret (2016, March 16). Uyghur Imam, Farmers Sentenced For Illegally Practicing Religion in China’s Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/uyghur-imam-farmers-sentenced-for-illegally-practicing-religion-in-chinas-xinjiang-03162016112010.html

[xxxi] Hoshur, Shohret (2017, September 19). Uyghur Woman Handed 10-Year Prison Term Over Headscarf Claim, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/headscarf-09192017174307.html

[xxxii] World Uyghur Congress (2017, September 8). Political Prisoner Database: Abdusemet Qarihaji, available at: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?s=Abdusemet+Qarihaji

[xxxiii] World Uyghur Congress. Political Prisoner Database: Memet Réhim and Memet Sidiq, available at: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?page_id=32974

[xxxiv] Counter-Terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China (2015), art. 3.

[xxxv] International Campaign for Tibet & FIDH (November 2016). China’s New Counter-Terrorism Law: Implications And Dangers For Tibetans And Uyghurs, pp. 9-10. Retrieved from: https://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/20161103_china_ct_report_final_.pdf

[xxxvi] Xinjiang Implementing Measures for the P.R.C. Counter-Terrorism Law (2016, July 29), art. 7, available at: http://npc.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0801/c14576-28601824.html and http://www.chinalawtranslate.com/xjcounter-terror/?lang=en

[xxxvii] Qiang, W. (2014, August 12) Urban Grid Management and Police State in China: A Brief Overview, China Change. Retrieved from: https://chinachange.org/2013/08/08/the-urban-grid-management-and-police-state-in-china-a-brief-overview

[xxxviii] Leilbold, J. & Zenz, A. (2016, December 23) Beijing’s Eyes and Ears Grow Sharper in Xinjiang, Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2016-12-23/beijings-eyes-and-ears-grow-sharper-xinjiang

[xxxix] Wen, P. (2017, March 30). Uighur heartland transformed into security state, Reuters. Retrieved from: https://widerimage.reuters.com/story/uighur-heartland-transformed-into-security-state

[xl] Leibold, J. & Zenz, A. (2017, September 21). Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing’s Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang, The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved from: https://jamestown.org/program/chen-quanguo-the-strongman-behind-beijings-securitization-strategy-in-tibet-and-xinjiang/

[xli] Human Rights Watch (2018, February 26). China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region, available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/26/china-big-data-fuels-crackdown-minority-region

[xlii] Ibid.

[xliii] Human Rights Watch (2017, December 13). China: Minority Region Collects DNA from Millions, Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/12/13/china-minority-region-collects-dna-millions

[xliv] Ibid.

[xlv] Phillips, T. (2014, October 20). China launches massive rural surveillance project to watch over Uyghurs, The Telegraph. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/11150577/China-launches-massive-rural-surveillance-project-to-watch-over-Uighurs.html

[xlvi] Hoja, G. (2017, June 8). China Embeds Cadres in Uyghur Homes During Ramadan, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/cadres-06082017164658.html

[xlvii] Hui, H. (2018, January 11). Xinjiang officials assigned as relatives to Uyghur villagers for ethnic unity campaign, Global Times. Retrieved from: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1084401.shtml

[xlviii] Xin, L. (2017, May 5). China’s Tourism Industry Ordered to Monitor, Report on Visitors to Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/chinas-tourism-industry-ordered-to-monitor-report-on-visitors-to-xinjiang-05052017121134.html

[xlix] Wen, P. (2017, April 10). Fellow Uighurs should beware of two-faced in separatism fight, official says, Reuters. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang-security/fellow-uighurs-should-beware-of-two-faced-people-in-separatism-fight-official-says-idUSKBN17C0HJ

[l] Sulaiman, E. (2017, April 12). Authorities Urge Kyrgyz Herdsmen to Spy on Uyghurs in China’s Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/authorities-urge-kyrgyz-herdsmen-to-spy-on-uyghurs-in-chinas-xinjiang-04122017153521.html

[li] Niyaz, K. (2017, August 29). Urumqi Officials Confirm Security Checks For Uyghur, Kazakh Vehicle Registrants, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/checks-08292017154534.html

[lii] Wong, E. (2017, February 24). Western China Region Aims to Track People by Requiring Car Navigation, The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/24/world/asia/china-xinjiang-gps-vehicles.html

[liii] Al Jazeera (2016, November 25). China: Xinjiang residents told to turn in passports, Al Jazeera. Retrieved from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/11/china-xinjiang-residents-told-turn-passports-161124134129535.html

[liv] Hoja, G. (2017, December 8). China Expands Recall of Passports to Uyghurs Outside of Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/passports-12082017152527.html

[lv] Hoshur, S. (2017, December 21). Two Uyghur Students Die in China’s Custody Following Voluntary Return From Egypt, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/students-12212017141002.html

[lvi] Human Rights Watch (2017, September 25). Interpol: Address China’s ‘Red Notice’ Abuses. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/25/interpol-address-chinas-red-notice-abuses

[lvii] Hoshur, S. (2018, January 22). Around 120,000 Uyghurs Detained For Political Re-Education in Xinjiang’s Kashgar Prefecture, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/detentions-01222018171657.html

[lviii] Phillips, T. (2018, January 25). China ‘holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps’, The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/25/at-least-120000-muslim-uighurs-held-in-chinese-re-education-camps-report

[lix] Hoja, G. (2018, February 24). Gulchehra Hoja: I demand Chinese Government Release My Parents, EastTurkestan Info. Retrieved from: https://eastturkistaninfo.com/2018/02/24/gulchehra-hoja-i-demand-chinese-govt-release-my-parents/

[lx] Hoshur, S. (2018, January 26). Overcrowded Political Re-Education Camps in Hotan Relocate Hundreds of Uyghur Detainees, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/camps-01262018140920.html

[lxi] Hoshur, S. (2017, December 21). Two Uyghur Students Die in China’s Custody Following Voluntary Return From Egypt, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/students-12212017141002.html

[lxii] World Uyghur Congress (2018, January 30). Press Release: WUC Deeply Saddened By The Death Of Uyghur Religious Leader, Muhammad Salih Hajim, In Chinese Custody. Retrieved from: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?p=33941

[lxiii] Hoshur, S. (2018, February 5). Threat of Re-Education Camp Drives Uyghur Who Failed Anthem Recitation to Suicide, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/suicide-02052018165305.html

[lxiv] Hoshur, S. (2018, March 14). Uyghur Teenager Dies in Custody at Political Re-Education Camp, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/teenager-03142018154926.html

[lxv] United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (UNCIRF). Case: Gulmira Imin, available at: http://www.uscirf.gov/gulmira-imin

[lxvi] Amnesty International. Huseyin Celil, available at: https://www.amnesty.ca/our-work/individuals-at-risk/huseyin-celil

[lxvii] Shuttleworth, S. (2018, February 25). ‘I miss her so much’: Australian man pleads for wife’s release from Chinese prison, The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/feb/25/i-miss-her-so-much-australian-man-pleads-for-wifes-release-from-chinese-prison

[lxviii] Human Rights Watch (2015, July 9). Thailand: 100 Ethnic Turks Forcibly Sent to China, available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/07/09/thailand-100-ethnic-turks-forcibly-sent-china

[lxix] Ayup, A. (2017, October 30). Nearly 20 Uyghur Students Unaccounted For Four Months After Egypt Raids, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/students-10302017162612.html

[lxx] World Uyghur Congress (2018, January 16). European Parliament Members Press Statement: European Parliament Members Call On Bulgarian Government Not To Deport Uyghur Asylum Seekers To China, available at: http://www.uyghurcongress.org/en/?p=33861

[lxxi] Human Rights Watch (2018, February 9). Malaysia: Don’t Send 11 Detainees to China, available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/09/malaysia-dont-send-11-detainees-china

[lxxii] Committee Against Torture (CAT), Concluding observations of the Committee Against Torture: China, 21 November 2008, CAT/C/CHN/CO/4, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cat/docs/CAT.C.CHN.CO.4.pdf

[lxxiii] Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, art. 37 (2012).

[lxxiv] UN Human Rights Council, Study on the phenomena of torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in the world, including an assessment of conditions of detention, A/HRC/13/39/Add.5, 5 February, 2010, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/13session/A.HRC.13.39.Add.5_en.pdf

[lxxv] Lu Huang, Keira. (2014, June 27). Detained Uygur economist Ilham Tohti denied food for 10 days in custody, lawyer says, South China Morning Post. Retrieved from: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1541335/detained-uygur-economist-ilham-tohti-denied-food-10-days-custody-lawyer

[lxxvi] Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez, 1 March 2011, A/HRC/16/52/Add.1, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/16session/A.HRC.16.52.Add.1_EFSonly.pdf

[lxxvii]  Amnesty International Urgent Action, Health of Uighur Prisoner ‘Critical’ (2012, September 20). Retrieved from: http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/uaa27112.pdf

[lxxviii] UHRP (2013). To Strike The Strongest Blow: Questions Remain Over Crackdown On 2009 Unrest In Urumchi, available at: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/to-strike-the-strongest-blow.pdf

[lxxix] UHRP (2013). Sacred Right Defiled: China’s Iron-fisted Repression of Uyghur Religious Freedom, available at: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/Sacred-Right-Defiled-Chinas-Iron-Fisted-Repression-of-Uyghur-Religious-Freedom.pdf

[lxxx] Tohti, I. (2015, April 15). [Translation of Earlier Released Article] Present-Day Ethnic Problems in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region: Overview and Recommendations (1) – Unemployment, China Change. Retrieved from: https://chinachange.org/2015/04/22/present-day-ethnic-problems-in-xinjiang-uighur-autonomous-region-overview-and-recommendations-1

[lxxxi] Shepard, W. (2015, December 16). Xinjiang: Has China’s crackdown on ‘terrorism’ worked?, The Diplomat. Retrieved from: https://thediplomat.com/2015/12/the-complex-impact-of-urbanization-in-xinjiang/

[lxxxii] Sulaiman, E. (2017, July 28). China Bans Uyghur Language in Schools in Key Xinjiang Prefecture, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/language-07282017143037.html

[lxxxiii] Uyghur Human Rights Project (2015). Uyghur Voices on Education: China’s Assimilative ‘Bilingual Education’ Policy in East Turkestan, p. 3, available at: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/pdf/Uyghur-Voices-on-Education.pdf

[lxxxiv] Uyghur Human Rights Project (2012, March). Living on the margins: The Chinese state’s demolition of Uyghur communities, available at: http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/3-30-Living-on-the-Margins.pdf

[lxxxv] Society for Threatened Peoples (July 2009). Save Kashgar‘s Old Town! Treasure of the Silk Road in danger: China’s authorities ordered destruction, available at: https://www.gfbv.de/fileadmin/redaktion/Reporte_Memoranden/2009/KashgarEnglisch.pdf

[lxxxvi] Levin, D. (2014, March 5). China Remodels an Ancient Silk Road City, and an Ethnic Rift Widens, The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/06/world/asia/china-remodels-an-ancient-silk-road-city-and-an-ethnic-rift-widens.html

[lxxxvii] Harris, R. (2017, November 1). “Uyghur Dutar King” detained in China, Free Muse. Retrieved from: https://freemuse.org/news/uyghur-dutar-king-detained-in-china/

[lxxxviii] Niyaz, K. (2017, November 2). Prominent Uyghur Musician Arrested Amid Ideological Purge in Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service. Retrieved from: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/musician-11022017162302.html

[lxxxix] Takada, J. (2008, October 28). Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions Case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests, International Radiation Protection Association. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/41/092/41092730.pdf

[xc] Hering, R. & Tanner, S. (2001). Death on the Silk Road, Channel4 Dispatches. Retrieved from: https://vimeo.com/5854200

[xci] Ibid.

[xcii] Epoch Time Staff (2009, March 31). Chinese Nuclear Tests Allegedly Caused 750,000 Deaths, The Epoch Times. Retrieved from: https://www.theepochtimes.com/chinese-nuclear-tests-allegedly-cause-750000-deaths_1524571.html